Analysis of undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cell (SSC)-associated gene expression using qRT-PCR. Asingle (As) specific expression gene, Pax7, was highly expressed in cultured SSCs. Additionally, the expression of undifferentiated marker genes Plzf, GFRa1, Etv5, and Bcl6b was significantly increased in SSCs compared with pup testicular cells (PTCs) and adult testicular cells (ATCs). These data were normalized by Gapdh, and the error bars represent ± SEM for three independent replicates. Different letters are statistically significant (p < 0.05).