Characterization of stress-induced animals. The CRH expression in the hypothalamus, upstream stress hormone, was assessed by western blotting (A and B). At the serum level, the concentration of corticosterone, downstream stress hormone, was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) assay (C). Body weight gains during experimental period were compared between Con and STR groups (D). *Superscript indicates a significant difference between groups (p < 0.01). CON: control group, STR: immobilization stress-induced group, CRH: corticotrophin releasing hormone, GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.