TRPV1 activation-induced cell death in TM3 cells. (A and C) Cell viability. (A) Capsaicin effect. The cells were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin for 24 h. (B) Capsazepine effect. (C) Effect of TRPV1 overexpression. (D) Annexin V/PI staining. Capsaicin was treated to vector or TRPV1 transfected cells for 24 h. Representative Annexin V (green)/PI (red) images. Scale bar, 50 µm. (E) Effect of testosterone on cell viability. (F) Protection of capsaicin (30 μM)-induced cell death by testosterone (100 nM) pretreatment. (G) Testosterone concentration. After 24 h of treatment with capsaicin and capsazepine in TM3 cells, the concentration of testosterone secreted from cells was measured. Each bar represents mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 compared to the control (solvent treatment). †p < 0.05 compared to the 10 μM capsaicin treatment. CTL, Cap, Cpz, and Tes indicate control, capsaicin, capsazepine, and testosterone, respectively.