Effects of ALA and EAAs on antioxidative factors. (A) Micrographs show the PPARγ coactivator (PGC)-1α (green) and Hoechst 33258 nuclear fluorochrome (blue). (B) Bar graph shows mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) analysis (MFI ± standard error of the mean (SEM) from n = 250-300; **** p < 0.001 vs. control). (C) Micrographs show sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) (green) and Hoechst 33258 nuclear fluorochrome (blue). (D) mRNA expression levels of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using RT-qPCR. Scale bars represent 20 μm. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.005 vs. the control group.