Effects of ALA and EAAs on the apoptosis and autophagy of C2C12 cells. (A, B) Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay and apoptosis index after treatment for 48 h. Scale bars represent 20 μm. (C) mRNA expression levels of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), and p53 were determined using RT-qPCR. (D) mRNA expression levels of beclin-1 were determined using RT-qPCR. (E) Representative bands of light chain 3 (LC-3) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were obtained via western blotting.