Effect of palmitic acid (PA) on cell viability and apoptosis of human trophoblasts. (A) Changes in viability of HTR8/SVneo cells following dose-dependent treatment (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM) with PA for 48 h. (B) Expression analysis of p53, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2, and LC3B following 200 μM PA treatment for 24 h in HTR8/SVneo cells. (C) Changes in apoptosis following 200 μM PA treatment for 48 h in HTR8/SVneo cells. The proportion of cells corresponding to the upper right quadrant was quantified. Data are presented as representative results from three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference compared to controls (***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01).